Fluoride-free synthesis and long-term stabilization of MXenes

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Fluoride-free synthesis and long-term stabilization of MXenes
Fluoride-free synthesis and long-term stabilization of MXenes
Other Titles:
Journal of Materials Research
Publication Date:
10 August 2022
Wong, A. J. Y., Lim, K. R. G., & Seh, Z. W. (2022). Fluoride-free synthesis and long-term stabilization of MXenes. Journal of Materials Research. https://doi.org/10.1557/s43578-022-00680-5
MXenes are a promising class of two-dimensional materials that have shown tremendous actual and future potential, particularly in the field of energy storage and conversion. This is due to their ideal properties, such as high electronic conductivity, hydrophilicity, tunable surface chemistry, and excellent mechanical stability. Unfortunately, broad-based adoption of MXenes remains limited due to their environmental impact and stability concerns. From an environmental standpoint, using HF during conventional MXene synthesis is dangerous and harmful to the environment. MXenes are also generally unstable in air and high moisture environments, oxidizing easily to form their respective metal oxides and amorphous carbon deposits. In this review, we summarize various fluoride-free etching techniques, such as HCl electrochemical etching, Lewis acid molten salt etching, and halogen-based etching. This is followed by a discussion of various processes reported to improve the MXenes’ oxidative resistance, namely post-synthesis annealing/processing, stabilizing additives, and aqueous-free/organic synthesis.
License type:
Publisher Copyright
Funding Info:
This research / project is supported by the National Research Foundation - NRF Fellowship
Grant Reference no. : NRF-NRFF2017-04

This research is supported by core funding from: SERC
Grant Reference no. : NA
This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1557/s43578-022-00680-5
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