Kaur, B., Koh, M., Ponnalagu, S. et al. Postprandial blood glucose response: does the glycaemic index (GI) value matter even in the low GI range?. Nutr. Diabetes 10, 15 (2020).
A growing body of research over the last decades has shown that diets based on the low glycaemic index (GI) foods reduce the risk of developing diabetes and improve blood glucose control in people with diabetes. The range of inflexion on the glycaemic response of low GI (LGI) foods is an interesting observation that has not been studied by many. LGI 1 (GI 54 ± 3.3) biscuit was formulated using a basic formulation while the LGI 2 (23.8 ± 3.3) biscuits was a modification of LGI 1 recipe, formulated with the inclusion of functional ingredients. Biscuits were formulated to be iso-caloric (kcal/100 g: 521 ± 12). Each participant consumed identical standard meals for lunch and dinner. Biscuits were consumed as breakfast and mid-afternoon snack. Using a randomized, controlled, crossover study, 13 males [(means ± SD) age: 25.3 ± 1.0 years, BMI 21.6 ± 0.5 kg/m2, fasting blood glucose 4.7 ± 0.1 mmol/L] wore continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS™) for 3 days for each test session. The postprandial glycaemic response and insulin response were compared within participants. Total iAUC for breakfast and standard dinner were significantly lower for LGI 2 treatment (p < 0.05) than LGI 1 treatment. Second-meal glucose tolerance was observed at the dinner meal. The overall iAUC insulin response over 180 min was significantly lower for LGI 2 biscuits (p = 0.01). The postprandial glycaemic response of two types of biscuits that fall within the low GI classification (GI 24 and 54) differed with LGI 2 biscuits (GI 24) showing a more suppressed postprandial glycaemic response. Our study shows that even within the low GI range, the GI value matters in influencing postprandial glucose.