B lymphocytes undergo metabolic reprogramming upon activation to meet the bioenergetic demands for proliferation and differentiation. Yet, little is known if and how the fate of naive B cells is metabolically regulated. Here, we specifically delete von Hippel-Lindau protein (VHL) in B cells using CD19-Cre and demonstrate that metabolic balance is essential for naive B cell survival. Loss of VHL disturbs glycolytic and oxidative metabolic balance and causes severe reduction in mature B cells. Mechanistically, the metabolic imbalance in VHL-deficient B cells, arising from over-stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), triggers reductive glutamine metabolism leading to increased Fas palmitoylation and caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. Blockade of reductive glutamine metabolic flux by lactate supplementation and ATP citrate lyase inhibition restores the metabolic balance and rectifies the impaired survival of VHL-deficient B cells. Hence, we unravel that the VHL/HIF-1α pathway is required to maintain the metabolic balance of naive B cells and ensure their survival.