Cross-modal retrieval (CMR) enables flexible retrieval experience across different modalities (e.g., texts versus images), which maximally benefits us from the abundance of multimedia data. Existing deep CMR approaches commonly require a large amount of labeled data for training to achieve high performance. However, it is time-consuming and expensive to annotate the multimedia data manually. Thus, how to transfer valuable knowledge from existing annotated data to new data, especially from the known categories to new categories, becomes attractive for real-world applications. To achieve this end, we propose a deep multimodal transfer learning (DMTL) approach to transfer the knowledge from the previously labeled categories (source domain) to improve the retrieval performance on the unlabeled new categories (target domain). Specifically, we employ a joint learning paradigm to transfer knowledge by assigning a pseudolabel to each target sample. During training, the pseudolabel is iteratively updated and passed through our model in a self-supervised manner. At the same time, to reduce the domain discrepancy of different modalities, we construct multiple modality-specific neural networks to learn a shared semantic space for different modalities by enforcing the compactness of homoinstance samples and the scatters of heteroinstance samples. Our method is remarkably different from most of the existing transfer learning approaches. To be specific, previous works usually assume that the source domain and the target domain have the same label set. In contrast, our method considers a more challenging multimodal learning situation where the label sets of the two domains are different or even disjoint. Experimental studies on four widely used benchmarks validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in multimodal transfer learning and demonstrate its superior performance in CMR compared with 11 state-of-the-art methods.