Ramadan fasting is a form of time-restricted feeding which combines a fast and feast period daily for a duration of one month every year. During Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and drink consumption from dawn till sunset and this change in the meal schedule and frequency results in significant changes to the composition of the diet, such as energy and nutrient intake. These changes in dietary habits and their corresponding effects on cardiometabolic disease risk are compiled in this review. Ramadan fasting shows limited benefits to body composition via reductions in body mass in both healthy and obese individuals, although the results are often found to be transient and heterogeneous. There is, however, a more consistent improvement in blood lipid profile during Ramadan fasting, which often lasts beyond the Ramadan period. The results for glucose homeostasis, on the contrary, are more conflicting and inconclusive. The heterogeneity in the findings from the various studies can be generally attributed to cultural variations in dietary habits, differences in the duration of fasting due to seasonal/climatic differences at various geographical locations, age, gender
and socioeconomic status, as well as other health and lifestyle factors of the various study populations.