Tan, W., Tan, W., Ponnalagu, S., Koecher, K., Menon, R., Tan, S., & Henry, C. (2018). The glycaemic index and insulinaemic index of commercially available breakfast and snack foods in an Asian population. British Journal of Nutrition, 119(10), 1151-1156. doi:10.1017/S0007114518000703
A low-glycaemic-index (GI) breakfast has been shown to lower blood glucose levels throughout the day. A wide variety of breakfast foods are consumed, but their GI values are largely unknown, hence limiting consumers’ ability to select healthier options. This study investigated the GI values of ten common breakfast (ﬁve Asian and ﬁve Western) foods in this region using a randomised, cross-over study design. Participants arrived after an overnight fast, and fasting blood sample was taken before participants consumed test foods. Next, blood samples were taken at ﬁxed intervals for 180min. Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to test foods were calculated as incremental AUC over 120min, which were subsequently reported as glycaemic and insulinaemic indices. In all, nineteen healthy men (nine Chinese and ten Indians) aged 24·7 (SEM 0·4) years with a BMI of 21·7(SEM 0·4)kg/m2 completed the study. Asian breakfast foods were of medium (white bun ﬁlled with red bean paste=58 (SEM 4); Chinese steamed white bun=58 (SEM 3)) to high GI (rice idli=85 (SEM 4); rice dosa=76 (SEM 5); upma=71 (SEM 6)), whereas Western breakfast foods were all of low GI (whole-grain biscuit=54 (SEM 5); whole-grain biscuit ﬁlled with peanut butter=44 (SEM 3); wholegrain oat muesli=55 (SEM 4); whole-grain oat protein granola=51 (SEM 4); whole-grain protein cereal=49 (SEM 3)). The GI of test foods negatively correlated with protein (rs−0·366), fat (rs−0·268) and dietary ﬁbre (rs−0·422) (all P<0·001). GI values from this study contribute to the worldwide GI database, and may assist healthcare professionals in recommending low-GI breakfast to assist in lower daily glycaemia among Asians who are susceptible to type 2 diabetes mellitus.
This research was co-funded by General Mills Inc. and Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A* STAR.