Breast cancer patients commonly present with comorbidities which are known to influence treatment decisions and survival. We aim to examine agreement between self-reported and register-based medical records (National Patient Register [NPR]). Ascertainment of nine conditions, using individually-linked data from 64,961 women enrolled in the Swedish KARolinska MAmmography Project for Risk Prediction of Breast Cancer (KARMA) study. Agreement was assessed using observed proportion of agreement (overall agreement), expected proportion of agreement, and Cohen’s Kappa statistic. Two-stage logistic regression models taking into account chance agreement were used to identify potential predictors of overall agreement. High levels of overall agreement (i.e. ≥86.6%) were observed for all conditions. Substantial agreement (Cohen’s Kappa) was observed for myocardial infarction (0.74), diabetes (0.71) and stroke (0.64) between self-reported and NPR data. Moderate agreement was observed for preeclampsia (0.51) and hypertension (0.46). Fair agreement was observed for heart failure (0.40) and polycystic ovaries or ovarian cysts (0.27). For hyperlipidemia (0.14) and angina (0.10), slight agreement was observed. In most subgroups we observed negative specific agreement of >90%. There is no clear reference data source for ascertainment of conditions. Negative specific agreement between NPR and self-reported data is consistently high across all conditions.