Biomineralization Patterns of Intracellular Carbonatogenesis in Cyanobacteria: Molecular Hypotheses

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Biomineralization Patterns of Intracellular Carbonatogenesis in Cyanobacteria: Molecular Hypotheses
Title:
Biomineralization Patterns of Intracellular Carbonatogenesis in Cyanobacteria: Molecular Hypotheses
Journal Title:
Minerals
Keywords:
Publication Date:
03 February 2016
Citation:
Minerals 2016, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/min6010010
Abstract:
The recent discovery of intracellular carbonatogenesis in several cyanobacteria species has challenged the traditional view that this process was extracellular and not controlled. However, a detailed analysis of the size distribution, chemical composition and 3-D-arrangement of carbonates in these cyanobacteria is lacking. Here, we characterized these features in Candidatus Gloeomargarita lithophora C7 and Candidatus Synechococcus calcipolaris G9 by conventional transmission electron microscopy, tomography, ultramicrotomy, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Both Ca. G. lithophora C7 and Ca. S. calcipolaris G9 formed numerous polyphosphate granules adjacent or engulfing Ca-carbonate inclusions when grown in phosphate-rich solutions. Ca-carbonates were scattered within Ca. G. lithophora C7 cells under these conditions, but sometimes arranged in one or several chains. In contrast, Ca-carbonates formed at cell septa in Ca. S. calcipolaris G9 and were segregated equally between daughter cells after cell division, arranging as distorted disks at cell poles. The size distribution of carbonates evolved from a positively to a negatively skewed distribution as particles grew. Conventional ultramicrotomy did not preserve Ca-carbonates explaining partly why intracellular calcification has been overlooked in the past. All these new observations allow discussing with unprecedented insight some nucleation and growth processes occurring in intracellularly calcifying cyanobacteria with a particular emphasis on the possible involvement of intracellular compartments and cytoskeleton.
License type:
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Funding Info:
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013 Grant Agreement No. 307110-ERC CALCYAN). The TEM facility at IMPMC was purchased owing to a support by Region Ile-de-France grant SESAME 2000 E 1435. Advanced Light Source (ALS) Molecular Environmental Science beamline 11.0.2 is supported by the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences and Materials Sciences Division, U.S. Department of Energy, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Description:
ISSN:
2075-163X
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