Our study shows that rs7071836, a promoter SNP in the CD39 gene region, affects the cell surface expression on Treg cells but not on other CD39+ leukocyte subsets. Epistasis analysis revealed that, in conjunction with a SNP upstream of the FAM134B gene (rs257174), it increased the risk of allergic rhinitis (P = 1.98 x 10-6). As a promoter SNP, rs257174 controlled the expression of the gene in monocytes but, notably, not in Treg cells. Whole blood transcriptome data of three large cohorts indicated an inverse relation in the expression of the two proteins. While this observation was in line with the epistasis data, it also implied that a functional link must exist. Exposure of monocytes to extracellular ATP resulted in an up-regulation of FAM134B gene expression, suggesting that extracellular ATP released from damaged cells represents the connection for the biological interaction of CD39 on Treg cells with FAM134B on monocytes.