INVITED REVIEW: Camel Milk and Gut Health: Understanding Digestibility and the Impact on Gut Microbiota

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INVITED REVIEW: Camel Milk and Gut Health: Understanding Digestibility and the Impact on Gut Microbiota
Title:
INVITED REVIEW: Camel Milk and Gut Health: Understanding Digestibility and the Impact on Gut Microbiota
Journal Title:
Journal of Dairy Science
Publication Date:
16 November 2023
Citation:
Ali, A. H., Li, S., Liu, S.-Q., Gan, R.-Y., Li, H.-B., Kamal-Eldin, A., & Ayyash, M. (2023). INVITED REVIEW: Camel Milk and Gut Health: Understanding Digestibility and the Impact on Gut Microbiota. Journal of Dairy Science. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2023-23995
Abstract:
Camel milk (CM), known for its immune-regulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antidiabetic properties, is a natural healthy food. It is easily digestible due to the high levels of β-casein and diverse secreted antibodies, exhibiting superior antibacterial and antiviral activities compared with bovine milk. β-casein is less allergic and more digestible since it is more susceptible to the digestive hydrolysis in gut, and therefore, higher levels of β-casein make CM advantageous for human health. Furthermore, antibodies help the digestive system by destroying the antigens, which are then overwhelmed and digested by macrophages. Gut microbiota in human health has gained a substantial research attention, as it offers potential benefits and supports disease treatment. It has a vital role in regulating the host health, since it helps in several biological functions, such as protection against pathogens, immune functions regulation, energy harvesting from digested foods, and reinforcement digestive track biochemical barriers. These functions could be affected by the changes in gut microbiota profile, and the differences of gut microbiota are associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, irritable bowel disorder, mental illness, allergy, and obesity. This review focuses on the digestibility of CM components, particularly protein and fat, and their influences on gut microbiota modulation. Notably, CM's hypoallergenic properties and small fat globules contribute to enhanced digestibility. Considering the rapid digestion of its proteins under conditions simulating infant gastrointestinal digestion, CM exhibits promise as a potential alternative for infant formula preparation due to the high β-/αs-casein ratio and protective proteins, in addition to the absence of β-lactoglobulin.
License type:
Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
Funding Info:
The authors thank the United Arab Emirates University for the financial support of this project.
Description:
ISSN:
0022-0302