Lim, K. R. G., Shekhirev, M., Wyatt, B. C., Anasori, B., Gogotsi, Y., & Seh, Z. W. (2022). Fundamentals of MXene synthesis. Nature Synthesis, 1(8), 601–614. https://doi.org/10.1038/s44160-022-00104-6
Since the first report on Ti3C2Tx in 2011, the family of two-dimensional transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides (MXenes) has increased substantially to include single and multi-element MXenes, with many more yet to be synthesized but predicted to possess attractive properties. To synthesize these elusive MXenes as well as to improve and scale up the manufacturing of known MXenes, a deeper mechanistic understanding of their synthesis processes is necessary, from the precursors to the etching–exfoliation and final intercalation–delamination steps. Here we examine computational modelling and in situ and ex situ characterization data to rationalize the reactivity and selectivity of MXenes towards various common etching and delamination methods. We discuss the effects of MAX phases, the predominant precursor, and other non-MAX layered materials on MXene synthesis and their resultant properties. Finally, we summarize the parameters behind successful (and unsuccessful) etching and delamination protocols. By highlighting the factors behind each step, we hope to guide the future development of MXenes with improved quality, yield and tunable properties.
This research / project is supported by the NRF - NRF Fellowship
Grant Reference no. : NRF-NRFF2017-04
This research is supported by core funding from: SERC
Grant Reference no. : NA
Financial support from:-
1) Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) Singapore National Science Scholarship (PhD)
2) National Defense Engineering & Science Graduate Fellowship Program.
3) Murata Manufacturing, Japan. B.A.
4) Funding from US National Science Foundation (grant CMMI-2134607)
and (grant DMR-2041050).