Waqar, M., Wu, H., Chen, J., Yao, K., & Wang, J. (2021). Evolution from Lead‐Based to Lead‐Free Piezoelectrics: Engineering of Lattices, Domains, Boundaries, and Defects Leading to Giant Response. Advanced Materials, 2106845. Portico. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202106845
Piezoelectric materials have been known to the mankind for more than a century, with numerous technological advancements made in the past 70 years in both scientific understandings and practical applications. Their performance is controlled by lattices, domains, boundaries, and defects at varying length scales, as well as the interactions among them. In the last two decades in particular, the research on piezoelectrics has been driven largely by the constantly changing technological demand, and the drive towards an environmental-friendly and sustainable society. Hence, environmental-friendly ‘lead-free piezoelectrics’ have emerged in the anticipation of replacing lead-based counterparts with at least comparable performance. However, there are still obstacles to be overcome for realizing this objective, while the efforts in this direction already seem to be culminated. Therefore, novel structural strategies need to be designed to address these issues and for further breakthrough in this field. In this review, we explore various strategies to enhance piezoelectric properties in lead-free systems with fundamental and historical context, and from atomic to macroscopic scale. We identify the main challenges currently faced in the transition from lead-based to lead-free piezoelectrics and suggest key milestones for the future research in this field. These include：(i) decoding the fundamental mechanisms; (ii) large temperature-stable piezoresponse; and (iii) fabrication-friendly and tailorable composition. We also provide strategic insights and general guidelines for the synergistic design of new piezoelectric materials for obtaining large piezoelectric response.
This research / project is supported by the A*STAR - RIE2020 AME Individual Research Grant (IRG)
Grant Reference no. : A20E5c0086
This research / project is supported by the Ministry of Education - Tier 1
Grant Reference no. : R-284-000-212-114
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Waqar, M., Wu, H., Chen, J., Yao, K., & Wang, J. (2021). Evolution from Lead‐Based to Lead‐Free Piezoelectrics: Engineering of Lattices, Domains, Boundaries, and Defects Leading to Giant Response. Advanced Materials, 2106845. Portico. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202106845 which has been published in final form at doi.org/10.1002/adma.202106845 . This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited