Bersini S., Miermont A., Pavesi A., Kamm R. Dale, Thiery J. Paul, Moretti M., Adriani G. A combined microfluidic-transcriptomic approach to characterize the extravasation potential of cancer cells. Oncotarget. 2018; 9: 36110-36125. Retrieved from https://www.oncotarget.com/article/26306/text/
The reciprocal interaction between circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and tissue-specific cells is influential for the progression of metastases. In particular, the process of extravasation relies on the complex cross-talk between cancer cells and other cellular players such as the endothelium and the secondary tissue. However, most in vitro studies only focus on one heterotypic cell-cell interaction and often lack of physiological relevance. In this project, we investigated both CTC-endothelium and CTC-secondary site interactions during cancer cell extravasation. We first used a microarray analysis of extravasated MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to identify key markers involved in extravasation. Then, we developed a tri-culture microfluidic platform combining cancer cells, endothelium and a bone-mimicking (BMi) microenvironment to assess how organ tropism influences the extravasation potential of cancer cells from different tissues. Through the microarray analyses of extravasated cancer cells we found that extravasation is associated with upregulation of late-metastatic markers along with specific proteases, such as matrix metalloprotease (MMP), a-disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) and a-disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) family members, which are all involved in endothelium glycocalyx shedding. Through the microfluidic extravasation assay, we found that the bone-like microenvironment increased invasion and motility of breast, bladder and ovarian cancer cell (MDA-MB-231, T24 and OVCAR-3). Among the three cell types, ovarian cancer cells presented the lowest migration rate and bladder cancer cells the highest, hence recapitulating their different level of bone tropism observed in vivo. Taken together, our results shed light on the importance of intercellular communication between CTCs and other non-tumor cells essential for promoting cancer cell extravasation.
The research was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF), Prime Minister’s Office,
Singapore, under its CREATE program, SingaporeMIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART)
BioSystems and Micromechanics (BioSyM) IRG, by the Human Frontier Science Program (LT000173/2014-L)
to AM, by the National Cancer Institute (NIH) Comprehensive Cancer Information (NCI) grant (U01 CA202177-01) to RDK and by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs through the Breast Cancer Research Program (Award No. W81XWH-15-1-0092).