Teo, P. S., van Dam, R. M., Whitton, C., Tan, L. W. L., & Forde, C. G. (2020). Consumption of Foods With Higher Energy Intake Rates is Associated With Greater Energy Intake, Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults. The Journal of Nutrition, 151(2), 370–378. doi:10.1093/jn/nxaa344
Both high energy density and fast eating rates contribute to excess energy intakes. The energy intake rate (EIR; kcal/min) combines both the energy density (kcal/g) and eating rate (g/min) of a food to quantify the typical rate at which calories of different foods are ingested.
We describe the EIRs of diets in a multi-ethnic Asian population, and examine relationships between the consumption of high-EIR foods and total energy intake, body composition, and cardio-metabolic risk factors.
Diet and lifestyle data from the Singapore Multi-Ethnic Cohort 2 (n = 7011; 21–75 y), were collected through interviewer-administrated questionnaires. The EIR for each of the 269 foods was calculated as the product of its eating rate and energy density. Multivariable models were used to examine associations between the relative consumption of foods with higher and lower EIRs and energy intake, body composition, and cardio-metabolic risks, after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education level, physical activity, smoking status, and alcohol drinking status.
Individuals with higher daily energy intakes and with obesity consumed a significantly larger percentage of their energy from high-EIR foods, with a smaller relative intake of lower-EIR foods. Individuals with raised serum cholesterol also consumed a significantly higher proportion of high-EIR foods, whereas those without hypertension consumed a larger percentage of energy intake from low-EIR foods. Individuals classified as having a “very high” dietary EIR had a significantly 1.3 kg higher body weight (95% CI, 0.2–1.5; P = 0.013), 0.4 kg/m2 higher BMI (95% CI, 0.03–0.8; P = 0.037), and 1.2 cm larger waist circumference (95% CI, 0.2–2.2; P = 0.010), and were more likely to have abdominal overweight (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1–1.5; P &amp;lt; 0.001) than those with a “low” dietary EIR.
Comparing foods by their EIRs summarizes the combined impact of energy density and eating rate, and may identify foods and dietary patterns that are associated with obesogenic eating styles and higher diet-related cardiovascular disease risk in an Asian population.
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There was no specific funding for the research done
This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in The Journal of Nutrition following peer review. The version of record Teo, P. S., van Dam, R. M., Whitton, C., Tan, L. W. L., & Forde, C. G. (2020). Consumption of Foods With Higher Energy Intake Rates is Associated With Greater Energy Intake, Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults. The Journal of Nutrition, 151(2), 370–378. doi:10.1093/jn/nxaa344 is available online at: xhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa344