Goh, A. T., Choy, J. Y. M., Chua, X. H., Ponnalagu, S., Khoo, C. M., Whitton, C., … Forde, C. G. (2021). Increased oral processing and a slower eating rate increase glycaemic, insulin and satiety responses to a mixed meal tolerance test. European Journal of Nutrition, 60(5), 2719–2733. doi:10.1007/s00394-020-02466-z
Variations in specific oral processing behaviours may contribute to differences in glucose, insulin and satiety responses to a standardised test meal. This study tested how natural variations in oral processing between slower and faster eaters contribute to differences in post-prandial glucose (PP glucose), insulin response (PP insulin) and post-meal satiety for a standardised test meal.
Thirty-three participants with higher risk for type 2 diabetes consumed a standardised test-meal while being video recorded to derive specific oral processing behaviours. Plasma glucose, insulin and satiety measures were collected at baseline, during and post meal. Participants were split into slower and faster eaters using median split based on their eating rates and individual bolus properties were analysed at the point of swallow.
There were large variations in eating rate (p < 0.001). While there was no significant difference in PP glucose response (p > 0.05), slower eaters showed significantly higher PP insulin between 45 and 60 min (p < 0.001). Slower eaters had longer oro-sensory exposure and increased bolus saliva uptake which was associated with higher PP glucose iAUC. Faster eating rate and larger bolus particle size at swallow correlated with lower PP glucose iAUC. A slower eating rate with greater chews per bite significantly increased insulin iAUC. Faster eaters also consistently rated their hunger and desire to eat higher than slower eaters (p < 0.05).
Natural variations in eating rate and the associated oral processing contributed to differences in PP glucose, PP insulin and satiety responses. Encouraging increased chewing and longer oral-exposure time during consumption, may promote early glucose absorption and greater insulin and satiety responses, and help support euglycaemia.
Supported by Singapore Ministry of Health’s National Medical Research Council under its Centre Grant
Programme (NMRC/CG/M009/2017_NUH/NUHS) & Singapore Biomedical Research Council Food Structure Engineering for Nutrition and Health (Sub-grant Grant no. H18/01/a0/E11, Awarded to PI: Forde, C. G.).
This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in European Journal of Nutrition. The final authenticated version is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02466-z.