Teo, P.S.; van Dam, R.M.; Forde, C.G. Combined Impact of a Faster Self-Reported Eating Rate and Higher Dietary Energy Intake Rate on Energy Intake and Adiposity. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3264.
Eating more quickly and consuming foods with a higher energy-intake-rate (EIR: kcal/min) is associated with greater energy intake and adiposity. However, it remains unclear whether individuals who eat more quickly are more likely to consume foods with higher EIR. We investigated the overlap between self-reported eating rate (SRER) and the consumption of higher EIR foods, and their combined impact on daily energy intake and adiposity in a population-based Asian cohort (n = 7011; 21–75y). Food consumption was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Moderated regression with simple slope analysis was conducted to evaluate whether SRER modified the association between dietary EIR and total dietary energy intakes. Faster eaters consumed a significantly higher proportion of energy from higher EIR foods among overweight individuals, but not among normal-weight individuals. Associations between dietary EIR and total energy intake were stronger among medium (β = 15.04, 95%CI: 13.00–17.08) and fast (β = 15.69, 95%CI: 12.61–18.78) eaters, compared with slower eaters (β = 9.89, 95%CI: 5.11–14.67; p-interaction = 0.032). Higher dietary EIR also tended to be more strongly associated with BMI in fast eaters (β = 0.025, 95%CI: 0.011–0.038) than in slow eaters (β = 0.017, 95%CI: −0.007–0.040). These findings suggest that the combination of eating more quickly and selecting a greater proportion of energy from higher EIR foods (i.e., softly textured, energy dense), promoted higher dietary energy intakes and adiposity.
The MEC2 follow-up study was supported by grants from the Ministry of Health, Singapore, NUS and National University Health System, Singapore. P.S.T. and C.G.F. were supported by the Singapore Biomedical Research Council Food Structure Engineering for Nutrition and Health (Sub-grant Grant no. H18/01/a0/E11, Awarded to PI: Forde C.G.).
The full paper is available for download at the publisher's URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113264