Peake JM, Markworth JF, Cumming KT, Aas SN, Roberts LA, Raastad T, Cameron-Smith D and Figueiredo VC (2020) The Effects of Cold Water Immersion and Active Recovery on Molecular Factors That Regulate Growth and Remodeling of Skeletal Muscle After Resistance Exercise. Front. Physiol. 11:737. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2020.00737
Regular postexercise cooling attenuates muscle hypertrophy, yet its effects on the key molecular factors that regulate muscle growth and remodeling are not well characterized. In the present study, nine men completed two sessions of single-leg resistance exercise on separate days. On 1 day, they sat in cold water (10°C) up to their waist for 10 min after exercise. On the other day, they exercised at a low intensity for 10 min after exercise. Muscle biopsies were collected from the exercised leg before, 2, 24, and 48 h after exercise in both trials. These muscle samples were analyzed to evaluate changes in genes and proteins involved in muscle growth and remodeling. Muscle-specific RING finger 1 mRNA increased at 2 h after both trials (P < 0.05), while insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 Ec, IGF-1 receptor, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45, collagen type I alpha chain A, collagen type III alpha chain 1, laminin and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1 mRNA increased 24−48 h after both trials (P < 0.05). By contrast, atrogin-1 mRNA decreased at all time points after both trials (P < 0.05). Protein expression of tenascin C increased 2 h after the active recovery trial (P < 0.05), whereas FoxO3a protein expression decreased after both trials (P < 0.05). Myostatin mRNA and ubiquitin protein expression did not change after either trial. These responses were not significantly different between the trials. The present findings suggest that regular cold water immersion attenuates muscle hypertrophy independently of changes in factors that regulate myogenesis, proteolysis and extracellular matrix remodeling in muscle after exercise.
Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
This study was funded by research grants from the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Research Foundation and Exercise and Sport Science Australia (ESSA) awarded to LR and JP, and a grant from Queensland University of Technology awarded to JP. LR was supported by an International Postgraduate Research Scholarship from the University of Queensland.