Maternal Feeding Practices in Relation to Dietary Intakes and BMI in 5 Year-Olds in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population

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Maternal Feeding Practices in Relation to Dietary Intakes and BMI in 5 Year-Olds in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population
Maternal Feeding Practices in Relation to Dietary Intakes and BMI in 5 Year-Olds in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population
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Publication Date:
18 September 2018
Quah, P. L., Syuhada, G., Fries, L. R., Chan, M. J., Lim, H. X., Toh, J. Y., Sugianto, R., Aris, I. M., Lee, Y. S., Yap, F., Godfrey, K. M., Gluckman, P. D., Chong, Y. S., Shek, L. P., Tan, K. H., Forde, C. G., & Chong, M. (2018). Maternal feeding practices in relation to dietary intakes and BMI in 5 year-olds in a multi-ethnic Asian population. PloS one, 13(9), e0203045.
Background: In Asia, little is known about how maternal feeding practices are associated with dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) in preschoolers. Objective: To assess the relationships between maternal feeding practices with dietary intakes and BMI in preschoolers in Asia using cross-sectional analysis in the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) cohort. Participant settings: Mothers (n = 511) who completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) and a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) when children were 5 years old. Statistical analysis: Associations between 12 maternal feeding practices (mean scores divided into tertiles) and children’s dietary intakes of seven food groups and BMI z-scores were examined using the general linear regression model. Weight and height of the child were measured, and dietary intakes derived from the FFQ. Results: Compared to those in the low tertile, mothers in the high tertile of modelling healthy food intakes had children with higher intakes of vegetables[+20.0g/day (95%CI:11.6,29.5)] and wholegrains[+ 20.9g/day (9.67,31.1)] but lower intakes of sweet snacks[-10.1g/day (-16.3,-4.94)] and fast-foods[-5.84g/day (-10.2,-1.48)]. Conversely, children of mothers in the high tertile for allowing child control (lack of parental control) had lower intake of vegetables[-15.2g/day (-26.6,-5.21)] and wholegrains[-13.6g/day (-22.9,-5.27)], but higher intakes of sweet snacks[+13.7g/day (7.7, 19.8)] and fast-foods[+6.63g/day (3.55,9.72)]. In relation to BMI at 5 years, food restrictions for weight was associated with higher BMI z-scores [0.86SD (0.61,1.21)], while use of pressure was associated with lower BMI z-scores[-0.49SD(-0.78,-0.21)]. Conclusions and implications: Modelling healthy food intakes by mothers was the key feeding practice associated with higher intakes of healthy foods and lower intakes of discretionary foods. The converse was true for allowing child control. Only food restrictions for weight and use of pressure were associated with BMI z-scores.
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Funding Info:
1. Supported by the translational Clinical Research (TCR) Flagship Program on Developmental Pathways to Metabolic Disease funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF) and administered by the National Medical Research Council(NMRC), Singapore- NMRC/TCR/004- NUS/2008; NMRC/TCR/012-NUHS/2014. 2. A*STAR and Nestec SA.: Nestec–Epigen fund: ‘Child Eating Behavior & Obesity’ (G0067; BMSI/15-300-SICS) 3. KMG is supported by the National Institute for Health Research through the NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre and by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013), projects Early Nutrition and ODIN under grant agreement numbers 289346 and 613977.
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