Ho, T.; Tan, B.X.; Lane, D. How the Other Half Lives: What p53 Does When It Is Not Being a Transcription Factor. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 13.
It has been four decades since the discovery of p53, the designated 'Guardian of the Genome'. P53 is primarily known as a master transcription factor and critical tumor suppressor, with countless studies detailing the mechanisms by which it regulates a host of gene targets and their consequent signaling pathways. However, transcription-independent functions of p53 also strongly define its tumor-suppressive capabilities and recent findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms hinted at by earlier efforts. This review highlights the transcription-independent mechanisms by which p53 influences the cellular response to genomic instability (in the form of replication stress, centrosome homeostasis, and transposition) and cell death. We also pinpoint areas for further investigation in order to better understand the context dependency of p53 transcription-independent functions and how these are perturbed when TP53 is mutated in human cancer.