Ethnic differences in effects of maternal pre-pregnancy and pregnancy adiposity on offspring size and adiposity

Ethnic differences in effects of maternal pre-pregnancy and pregnancy adiposity on offspring size and adiposity
Title:
Ethnic differences in effects of maternal pre-pregnancy and pregnancy adiposity on offspring size and adiposity
Other Titles:
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Publication Date:
01 October 2015
Citation:
Xinyi Lin, Izzuddin M. Aris, Mya Thway Tint, Shu E. Soh, Keith M. Godfrey, George Seow-Heong Yeo, Kenneth Kwek, Jerry Kok-Yen Chan, Peter D. Gluckman, Yap Seng Chong, Fabian Yap, Joanna D. Holbrook, Yung Seng Lee, Ethnic Differences in Effects of Maternal Pre-Pregnancy and Pregnancy Adiposity on Offspring Size and Adiposity, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 100, Issue 10, 1 October 2015, Pages 3641–3650, https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-1728
Abstract:
Context: Maternal adiposity and overnutrition, both before and during pregnancy, plays a key role in the subsequent development of obesity and metabolic outcomes in offspring. Objective: We explored the hypothesis that maternal adiposity (pre-pregnancy and at 26-28 weeks' gestation) and mid-pregnancy gestational weight gain (GWG) are independently associated with offspring size and adiposity in early childhood, and determined whether these effects are ethnicity dependent. Design: In a prospective mother-offspring cohort study (N = 976, 56% Chinese, 26% Malay, and 18% Indian), we assessed the associations of offspring size (weight, length) and adiposity (subscapular and triceps skinfolds), measured at birth and age 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo, with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (ppBMI), mid-pregnancy GWG, and mid-pregnancy four-site skinfold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, subscapular, suprailiac). Results: ppBMI and mid-pregnancy GWG were independently associated with postnatal weight up to 2 y and skinfold thickness at birth. Weight and subscapular and triceps skinfolds at birth increased by 2.56% (95% confidence interval, 1.68-3.45%), 3.85% (2.16-5.57%), and 2.14% (0.54-3.75%), respectively for every SD increase in ppBMI. Similarly, a one-SD increase in GWG increased weight and subscapular and triceps skinfolds at birth by 2.44% (1.66-3.23%), 3.28% (1.75-4.84%), and 3.23% (1.65-4.84%), respectively. ppBMI and mid-pregnancy suprailiac skinfold independently predicted postnatal skinfold adiposity up to 2 years of age, whereas only GWG predicted postnatal length. The associations of GWG with postnatal weight and length were present only among Chinese and Indians, but not Malays (P < .05 for interaction). Conclusions: ppBMI and GWG are independent modifiable factors for child size and adiposity up to 2 years of age. The associations are ethnic-dependent, and underscore the importance of ethnic specific studies before generalizing the applicability of risk factors reported in other populations.
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Funding Info:
This work was supported by the Translational Clinical Research (TCR) Flagship Program on Developmental Pathways to Metabolic Disease funded by the National Research Foundation and administered by the National Medical Research Council (NMRC), Singapore - NMRC/TCR/004-NUS/2008. Additional funding is provided by the Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore. K.M.G. was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) through the NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre and by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013), project EarlyNutrition under Grant No. 289346.
Description:
The full paper is available for free download at the publisher's URL: https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-1728
ISSN:
1945-7197
0021-972X
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