Aris, I.M., Chen, L., Tint, M.T. et al. Body mass index trajectories in the first two years and subsequent childhood cardio-metabolic outcomes: a prospective multi-ethnic Asian cohort study. Sci Rep 7, 8424 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09046-y
We investigated body mass index (BMI) trajectories in the first 2 years of life in 1170 children from an Asian mother-offspring cohort in Singapore, and examined their predictors and associations with childhood cardio-metabolic risk measures at 5 years. Latent class growth mixture modelling analyses were performed to identify distinct BMI z-score (BMIz) trajectories. Four trajectories were identified: 73.2%(n = 857) of the children showed a normal BMIz trajectory, 13.2%(n = 155) a stable low-BMIz trajectory, 8.6%(n = 100) a stable high-BMIz trajectory and 5.0%(n = 58) a rapid BMIz gain after 3 months trajectory. Predictors of the stable high-BMIz and rapid BMIz gain trajectories were pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, Malay and Indian ethnicity, while predictors of stable low-BMIz trajectory were preterm delivery and Indian ethnicity. At 5 years, children with stable high-BMIz or rapid BMIz gain trajectories had increased waist-to-height ratios [B(95%CI) 0.02(0.01,0.03) and 0.03(0.02,0.04)], sum of skinfolds [0.42(0.19,0.65) and 0.70(0.36,1.03)SD units], fat-mass index [0.97(0.32,1.63)SD units] and risk of obesity [relative risk 3.22(1.73,6.05) and 2.56 (1.19,5.53)], but not higher blood pressure. BMIz trajectories were more predictive of adiposity at 5 years than was BMIz at 2 years. Our findings on BMIz trajectories in the first 2 years suggest important ethnic-specific differences and impacts on later metabolic outcomes.
This work was supported by the Translational Clinical Research (TCR) Flagship Programme on Developmental Pathways to Metabolic Disease, NMRC/TCR/004-NUS/2008; NMRC/TCR/012- NUHS/2014 funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF) and administered by the National. Medical Research Council (NMRC), Singapore. KMG is supported by the National Institute for Health Research through the NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre and by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013), project EarlyNutrition under grant agreement no. 289346.