Ling-Wei Chen, Mya-Thway Tint, Marielle V Fortier, Izzuddin M Aris, Jonathan Y Bernard, Marjorelee Colega, Peter D Gluckman, Seang-Mei Saw, Yap-Seng Chong, Fabian Yap, Keith M Godfrey, Michael S Kramer, Rob M van Dam, Mary Foong-Fong Chong, Yung Seng Lee, Maternal Macronutrient Intake during Pregnancy Is Associated with Neonatal Abdominal Adiposity: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 146, Issue 8, August 2016, Pages 1571–1579, https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.116.230730
Background: Infant body composition has been associated with later metabolic disease risk, but few studies have examined the association between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal body composition. Furthermore, most of those studies have used proxy measures of body composition that may not reflect body fat distribution, particularly abdominal internal adiposity.
Objective: We investigated the relation between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal abdominal adiposity measured by using MRI in a multiethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort.
Methods: The macronutrient intake of mothers was ascertained by using a 24-h dietary recall at 26–28 wk gestation. Neonatal abdominal adiposity was assessed by using MRI in week 2 of life. Mother–offspring dyads with complete macronutrient intake and adiposity information (n = 320) were included in the analysis. Associations were assessed by both substitution and addition models with the use of multivariable linear regressions.
Results: Mothers (mean age: 30 y) consumed (mean ± SD) 15.5% ± 4.3% of their energy from protein, 32.4% ± 7.7% from fat, and 52.1% ± 9.0% from carbohydrate. A higher-protein, lower-carbohydrate or -fat diet during pregnancy was associated with lower abdominal internal adipose tissue (IAT) in the neonates [β (95% CI): −0.18 mL (−0.35, −0.001 mL) per 1% protein-to-carbohydrate substitution and −0.25 mL (−0.46, −0.04 mL) per 1% protein-to-fat substitution]. These associations were stronger in boys than in girls (P-interaction < 0.05). Higher maternal intake of animal protein, but not plant protein, was associated with lower offspring IAT. In contrast, maternal macronutrient intake was not associated consistently with infant anthropometric measurements, including abdominal circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness.
Conclusions: Higher maternal protein intake at the expense of carbohydrate or fat intake at 26–28 wk gestation was associated with lower abdominal internal adiposity in neonates. Optimizing maternal dietary balance might be a new approach to improve offspring body composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.
This research is supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation under its Translational and Clinical Research Flagship Programme and is administered by the Singapore Ministry of Health’s National Medical Research Council, Singapore (NMRC/TCR/004-NUS/2008 and NMRC/TCR/012-NUHS/2014). Additional funding is provided by the Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, Singapore, and Nestec. KMG is supported by the National Institute for Health Research through the NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre and by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) and projects EarlyNutrition and ODIN (Food-Based Solutions for Optimal Vitamin D Nutrition and Health through the Life Cycle) under grant agreements 289346 and 613977.
The full paper is available for free download at the publisher's URL: https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.116.230730