The Development and Evaluation of a Diet Quality Index for Asian Toddlers and Its Perinatal Correlates: The GUSTO Cohort Study

The Development and Evaluation of a Diet Quality Index for Asian Toddlers and Its Perinatal Correlates: The GUSTO Cohort Study
Title:
The Development and Evaluation of a Diet Quality Index for Asian Toddlers and Its Perinatal Correlates: The GUSTO Cohort Study
Other Titles:
Nutrients
Keywords:
Publication Date:
01 March 2019
Citation:
Chen, L.-W.; Fung, S.M.; Fok, D.; Leong, L.P.; Toh, J.Y.; Lim, H.X.; Pang, W.W.; Tan, K.H.; Chong, Y.-S.; Yap, F.; Godfrey, K.M.; Lee, Y.S.; Chong, M. .-F. The Development and Evaluation of a Diet Quality Index for Asian Toddlers and Its Perinatal Correlates: The GUSTO Cohort Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 535.
Abstract:
Early childhood diet may have lifelong influences on health outcomes, yet development of indices to assess diet quality is scarce in toddlers, especially in Asian countries. We aimed to develop and evaluate a Diet Quality Index (DQI) in a multi-ethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort and identify perinatal correlates of early childhood diet. Based primarily on the Singapore dietary guidelines, the DQI includes seven food components: rice, bread and alternatives; fruit; vegetables; meat and alternatives; milk and dairy products; whole grains; and foods high in sugar. The DQI was developed using parental report of Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) data for 18-month-old toddlers (n = 561). The mean ± SD of DQI for the study toddlers was 44.2 ± 8.9 (theoretical range: 0–65). A higher DQI (better diet quality) was associated with higher intakes of several nutrients and food groups (e.g., vegetables, dietary fibre, and beta-carotene; all p < 0.001). Further construct validity was demonstrated by substantial agreement between the FFQ-DQI and 24-hour-recall-DQI (Intraclass-correlation-coefficient: 0.70). Independent predictors of lower DQI included higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI [β(95% CI): −0.23(−0.39, −0.07)], Malay ethnicity [−1.88(−3.67, −0.09)], lower household income [−1.97(−3.91, −0.03)], lower education level [−2.57(−4.85, −0.28)] and never breastfeeding [−6.17(−11.06, −1.28)]. We developed a valid DQI for assessing the overall quality of the diets of Asian toddlers.
License type:
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Funding Info:
This research was funded by Translational Clinical Research (TCR) Flagship Program on Developmental Pathways to Metabolic Disease funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF) and administered by the National Medical Research Council (NMRC), Singapore—NMRC/TCR/004-NUS/2008. Additional funding is provided by the Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR and Nestec. K.M.G. is supported by the National Institute for Health Research through the NHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre.
Description:
ISSN:
2072-6643
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