Reducing the glycemic impact of carbohydrates on foods and meals: Strategies for the food industry and consumers with special focus on Asia

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Reducing the glycemic impact of carbohydrates on foods and meals: Strategies for the food industry and consumers with special focus on Asia
Title:
Reducing the glycemic impact of carbohydrates on foods and meals: Strategies for the food industry and consumers with special focus on Asia
Other Titles:
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
Publication Date:
20 January 2020
Citation:
Wee, M. S., & Henry, C. J. (2020). Reducing the glycemic impact of carbohydrates on foods and meals: Strategies for the food industry and consumers with special focus on Asia. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 19(2), 670-702.
Abstract:
Type 2 diabetes is increasingly prevalent in Asia, which can be attributed to a carbohydrate‐rich diet, consisting of foods in the form of grains, for example, rice, or a food product made from flours or isolated starch, for example, noodles. Carbohydrates become a health issue when they are digested and absorbed rapidly (high glycemic index), and more so when they are consumed in large quantities (high glycemic load). The principal strategies of glycemic control should thus aim to reduce the amount of carbohydrate available for digestion, reduce the rate of digestion of the food, reduce the rate of glucose absorption, and increase the rate of glucose removal from blood. From a food perspective, the composition and structure of the food can be modified to reduce the amount of carbohydrates or alter starch digestibility and glucose absorption rates via using different food ingredients and processing methods. From a human perspective, eating behavior and food choices surrounding a meal can also affect glycemic response. This review therefore identifies actionable strategies and opportunities across foods and meals that can be considered by food manufacturers or consumers. They are (a) using alternative ingredients, (b) adding functional ingredients, and (c) changing processing methods and parameters for foods, and optimizing (a) eating behavior, (b) preloading or co‐ingestion of other macronutrients, and (c) meal sequence and history. The effectiveness of a strategy would depend on consumer acceptance, compatibility of the strategy with an existing food product, and whether it is economically or technologically feasible. A combination of two or more strategies is recommended for greater effectiveness and flexibility.
License type:
PublisherCopyrights
Funding Info:
Biomedical Science Institute Industry Alignment Fund (Pre‐positioning; IAF‐PP) HBMS Domain; Food Structure Engineering for Nutrition and Health, Food Structure (H18/01/a0/B11)
Description:
The full paper is available for download at the publisher's URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12525
ISSN:
1541-4337
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