Background: Obesity-related insulin resistance is linked to inflammation. Immunometabolic function differs between lean and obese subjects, but whether macronutrient composition of ingested meals affects these responses is not well known. We examined the effects of a single meal rich in fat, protein, or carbohydrate on immunometabolic responses.
Methods: Nine lean insulin sensitive (LIS) men and 9 obese insulin resistant (OIR) men ingested high-carbohydrate (HC), high-fat (HF) or high-protein (HP) mixed meals in random order. We assessed plasma glucose, insulin, and cytokine responses and cytokine gene expression in circulating mononuclear cells (MNC) at fasting and postprandial states (up to 6-h).
Results: Expression of NF-κB and TNFα genes were greater; whereas that of TGFβ and IL-6 genes were lower, in the OIR compared to the LIS individuals. The differences were significantly greater after the HC meal, but not after the HP or HF meal. Similar results were obtained for plasma concentrations of TNFα and IL-6.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that a single HC meal has a distinct adverse effect on immunometabolic responses in the OIR individuals. The cumulative effect of such adverse responses to meals rich in carbohydrate may predispose the OIR individuals to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.