Towards Intelligent Intracortical BMI (i2BMI): Low-Power Neuromorphic Decoders That Outperform Kalman Filters

Towards Intelligent Intracortical BMI (i2BMI): Low-Power Neuromorphic Decoders That Outperform Kalman Filters
Title:
Towards Intelligent Intracortical BMI (i2BMI): Low-Power Neuromorphic Decoders That Outperform Kalman Filters
Other Titles:
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Keywords:
Publication Date:
01 December 2019
Citation:
S. Shaikh, R. So, T. Sibindi, C. Libedinsky and A. Basu, "Towards Intelligent Intracortical BMI (i$^2$BMI): Low-Power Neuromorphic Decoders That Outperform Kalman Filters," in IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1615-1624, Dec. 2019. doi: 10.1109/TBCAS.2019.2944486
Abstract:
Fully-implantable wireless intracortical Brain Machine Interfaces (iBMI) is one of the most promising next frontiers in the nascent field of neurotechnology. However, scaling the number of channels in such systems by another 10× is difficult due to power and bandwidth requirements of the wireless transmitter. One promising solution for that is to include more processing, up to the decoder, in the implant so that transmission data-rate is reduced drastically. Earlier work on neuromorphic decoder chips only showed classification of discrete states. We present results for continuous state decoding using a low-power neuromorphic decoder chip termed S pike-input E xtreme L earning Ma chine (SELMA) that implements a nonlinear decoder without memory and its memory-based version with time-delayed bins, SELMA-bins. We have compared SELMA, SELMA-bins against state-of-the-art S teady- S tate K alman F ilter (SSKF), a linear decoder with memory, across two different datasets involving a total of 4 non-human primates (NHPs). Results show at least a 10% (20%) or more increase in the fraction of variance accounted for (FVAF) by SELMA (SELMA-bins) over SSKF across the datasets. Estimated energy consumption comparison shows SELMA (SELMA-bins) consuming $\approx$ 9 $nJ/update$ (23 $nJ/update$ ) against SSKF's $\approx$ 7.4 $nJ/update$ for an iBMI with a 10 degree of freedom control. Thus, SELMA yields better performance against SSKF while consuming energy in the same range as SSKF whereas SELMA-bins performs the best with moderately increased energy consumption, albeit far less than energy required for raw data transmission. This paves the way for reducing transmission data rates in future scaled iBMI systems.
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© 2019 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
ISSN:
1932-4545
1940-9990
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