Over the past decade there has been a dramatic progress in the field of stem cell research and a rapid surge in investigation of stem cell therapies. Current clinical trials using a variety of stem cell types are addressing a wide spectrum of conditions. Among different types of adult stem cells discovered, dental stem cells are among the newest found in the MSC repertoire. Dental stem cells can be isolated relatively easily through minimally invasive procedures from both young and adult populations. In particular, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are found to have outstanding potentials because of their superior proliferation, multi-potent differentiation, regeneration, immunoprivileged, and immunomodulatory properties. In addition, DPSCs can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with high efficiency, possibly due to their dual meso-ectodermal origin and intrinsic expression of pluripotent factors. The current chapter discusses their origin, biological niche, functional properties, reprogramming capability, and application potentials for therapeutics, cell banking, and tissue engineering toward construction of both dental and non-dental tissues. This chapter consists of three main sections: (1) Developmental biology and organization of dental-related stem cells; (2) Dental stem cell properties for cell-based therapeutics; (3) Potentials of dental stem cells for tissue engineering and cell banking. Overall this review provides current biological knowledge on dental stem cells and their translational applications at both in vitro and in vivo levels. The chapter is designed for both clinicians and researchers involved in odontogenesis and stem cell research alike.