In this paper, motion synchronization is investigated for human–robot collaboration such that the robot is able to “actively” follow its human partner. Force tracking is achieved with the proposed method under the impedance control framework, subject to uncertain human limb dynamics. Adaptive control is developed to deal with point-to-point movement, and learning control and neural networks control are developed to generate periodic and arbitrary continuous trajectories, respectively. Stability and tracking performance of the closed-loop system are discussed through rigorous analysis. The validity of the proposed method is verified through simulation and experiment studies.