Chong, S. Z., Wong, K. L., Lin, G., Yang, C. M., Wong, S.-C., Angeli, V., MacAry, P. A. and Kemeny, D. M. (2011), Human CD8+ T cells drive Th1 responses through the differentiation of TNF/iNOS-producing dendritic cells. Eur. J. Immunol., 41: 1639–1651. doi: 10.1002/eji.201041022
TNF/iNOS-producing dendritic cells (Tip-DCs) have been shown to arise during inflammation and are important mediators of immune defense. However, it is still relatively unclear which cell types contribute to their differentiation. Here we show that CD8+ T cells, through the interaction with DCs, can induce the rapid development of human monocytes into Tip-DCs that express high levels of TNF-α and iNOS. Tip-DCs exhibited T-cell priming ability, expressed high levels of MHC class II, upregulated co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, CD86, toll-like receptors TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, chemokine receptors CCR1 and CX3CR1 and expressed the classical mature DC marker, CD83. Differentiation of monocytes into Tip-DCs was partially dependent on IFN-γ as blocking the IFN-γ receptor on monocytes resulted in a significant decrease in CD40 and CD83 expression and in TNF-α production. Importantly, these Tip-DCs were capable of further driving Th1 responses by priming naive CD4+ T cells for proliferation and IFN-γ production and this was partially dependent on Tip-DC production of TNF-α and NO. Our study hence identifies a role for CD8+ T cells in orchestrating Th1-mediating signals through the differentiation of monocytes into Th1-inducing Tip-DCs.